Sleep Tracking Technology: Can Wearables Help Diagnose and Treat Insomnia?

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Wearable technology has changed many facets of our life in the last few years, from monitoring our health to measuring our fitness. Among these developments, sleep tracking has become a vital resource for determining and enhancing the quality of sleep. A common sleep problem that causes trouble falling or staying asleep, insomnia affects millions of people globally. This article examines wearable technology’s potential for diagnosing and treating insomnia, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, and future prospects.

The Spread of Trackers for Wearable Sleep

Due to their accessibility and convenience, wearable sleep trackers—which are integrated into gadgets like fitness bands, smartwatches, and specialized sleep monitors—have become more and more popular. These gadgets track physiological data including skin temperature, movement, and heart rate using a variety of sensors. Wearables can reveal information on sleep habits, duration, and quality by examining these variables.

Wearable sleep trackers’ main attraction is their long-term, inconspicuous data collection capability. In clinical settings, traditional sleep studies frequently use polysomnography (PSG), a complete examination that records heart rate, respiration patterns, oxygen levels, and brain waves. Although PSG is the gold standard for identifying sleep problems, patients may find it uncomfortable and it is costly and time-consuming. Conversely, wearable technology provides a more affordable and unobtrusive option for continuous sleep monitoring in naturalistic environments.

Functions of Wearable Sleep Trackers

Wearable sleep trackers measure sleep using a combination of algorithms and sensors. Accelerometers, photoplethysmography (PPG), and electrodermal activity (EDA) sensors are examples of common sensors. Accelerometers track movement and, by identifying patterns in motion, can assist in differentiating between sleep stages. PPG sensors monitor heart rate and its fluctuations, giving information on different stages of sleep and the general health of sleep. Skin conductance, which is correlated with sleep quality and can reveal stress levels, is measured by EDA sensors.

The gathered data is processed by sophisticated algorithms to determine the various stages of sleep, including light, deep, REM (rapid eye movement), and awake. To improve their diagnostic skills even more, several wearables include other features like ambient noise monitoring and snore detection.

Wearable Technology for Insomnia Diagnosis

The diagnosis of insomnia is frequently made on the basis of subjective accounts of sleep problems and how they affect day-to-day functioning. Subjective evaluations, however, can be impacted by a number of variables, such as psychological disorders and memory distortions.

An important source of data to help the diagnosis of insomnia is provided by wearable sleep trackers, which enable an objective measurement of sleep characteristics.

Wearable technology can identify discrepancies between perceived and actual sleep by continuously tracking patterns of sleep over several days or weeks. For instance, those who suffer from insomnia may underestimate how much time they spend sleeping overall because they wake up a lot or have disturbed sleep. By giving a more precise picture of sleep behavior, wearable data can help close this gap and empower medical practitioners to make well-informed judgments.

Additionally, wearables can help distinguish between different kinds of insomnia, such as difficulties falling asleep or trouble remaining asleep, or sleep-onset insomnia. This distinction is essential for modifying therapy strategies to successfully address the underlying problems.

Utilizing Wearable Technology to Treat Insomnia

In addition to helping with insomnia diagnosis, wearable technology may also open up new therapy options. The well-researched, evidence-based treatment for insomnia, known as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), focuses on altering beliefs and behaviors associated with sleep. Because they track progress and offer real-time feedback, wearable sleep trackers can be a useful addition to CBT-I.

For example, by providing notifications and reminders, wearable technology can assist people in maintaining regular sleep habits. Additionally, they can monitor the use of relaxation methods like deep breathing exercises or meditation and offer feedback on how well they work. Wearables provide individualized insights and practical suggestions to enable people to actively manage their sleep health.


Additionally, some wearable technology has biofeedback capabilities that encourage stress relief and relaxation. Monitoring physiological signals, such as heart rate variability, and utilizing the data to adjust stress reactions is known as biofeedback. Wearable technology can help people control their physiological conditions, which can enhance sleep quality and lessen the symptoms of insomnia.

Constraints and Difficulties

Wearable sleep trackers have many limits and issues that need to be resolved in order to fully realize their promise.


Although wearables offer insightful information, research is still being done to determine how accurate they are at measuring sleep stages in relation to PSG. Sleep tracking accuracy can be affected by various factors, including individual variability, algorithm design, and sensor positioning.

Data privacy:

Security and privacy issues are brought up by the gathering and storing of private sleep data. Gaining consumers’ trust requires implementing strong data protection mechanisms and clear privacy rules.


For some people, wearing a wearable for an extended period of time can be difficult. User involvement, battery life, and device comfort are important variables that affect adherence.

Integration with Healthcare:

Standardization and compatibility with current healthcare systems are necessary for integrating wearable data into clinical practice. Effective diagnosis and treatment depend on smooth data transport and interpretation.


Although wearables are typically less expensive than conventional sleep studies, some people may find the price of high-quality wearables to be a barrier. For adoption to be widely accepted, accessibility and cost must be guaranteed.

Upcoming prospects

The field of insomnia diagnosis and treatment may advance thanks to wearable sleep tracking technology in the future. Future research and technical developments should be able to solve existing constraints and open up new possibilities.

Enhanced Accuracy:

As sensor technology and algorithm development advance, wearable sleep trackers will become more accurate. Using artificial intelligence and combining several sensors can result in more accurate and thorough sleep assessments.

Integration with Health Ecosystems:

Wearables are going to be more closely integrated with larger health ecosystems, such as telemedicine platforms and electronic health records (EHRs). This interface will enhance integrated healthcare methods and enable smooth data interchange.

Tailored Interventions:

More complex tailored interventions will be possible with the development of data analytics and machine learning. Wearables will provide personalized advice depending on a user’s lifestyle, health, and sleep habits.

Preventive healthcare:

By spotting early indicators of sleep disturbances and encouraging sound sleeping practices, wearable sleep trackers will be extremely important in this regard. Interventions taken early on can stop the development of insomnia and related health problems.

Wearable Therapeutics:

As wearable technology and therapeutic treatments come together, new approaches to treating insomnia will be developed. To encourage better sleep, wearables can include functions like light therapy, guided relaxation techniques, and customizable soundscapes.

In summary

The diagnosis and treatment of insomnia have advanced significantly with the introduction of wearable sleep tracking equipment. Wearables provide easy, ongoing, and unbiased sleep tracking, which provides insightful data about sleep habits and trends. Even though there are still issues with accuracy, data privacy, and compliance, continued research and technology developments should help to resolve these problems and improve the effectiveness of wearable sleep trackers.

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